HAGUA-VISBY RULES
The Hague Rules as Amended by the Brussels Protocol 1968

Article I

Definitions

In these Rules the following expressions have the meanings hereby assigned to them respectively, that is to say,

(a) "carrier" includes the owner or the charterer who enters into a contract of carriage with a shipper;
(b) "contract of carriage" applies only to contracts of carriage covered by a bill of lading or any similar document of title, in so far as such document relates to the carriage of goods by water, including any bill of lading or any similar document as aforesaid issued under or pursuant to a charter-party from the moment at which such bill of lading or similar document of title regulates the relations between a carrier and a holder of the same;
(c) "goods" includes goods, wares, merchandise and articles of every kind whatsoever, except live animals and cargo which by the contract of carriage is stated as being carried on deck and is so carried;
(d) "ship" means any vessel used for the carriage of goods by water;
(e) "carriage of goods" covers the period from the time when the goods are loaded on to the time they are discharged from the ship. . more..


HAMBURG RULES
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA, 1978

Preamble

THE STATES PARTIES TO THIS CONVENTION,
HAVING RECOGNIZED the desirability of determining by agreement certain rules relating to the carriage of goods by sea,
HAVE DECIDED to conclude a Convention for this purpose and have thereto agreed as follows:

PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1
Definitions
In this Convention:
1. "Carrier" means any person by whom or in whose name a contract of carriage of goods by sea has been concluded with a shipper.
2. "Actual carrier" means any person to whom the performance of the carriage of the goods, or of part of the carriage, has been entrusted by the carrier, and includes any other person to whom such performance has been entrusted.
3. "Shipper" means any person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf a contract of carriage of goods by sea has been concluded with a carrier, or any person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf the goods are actually delivered to the carrier in relation to the contract of carriage by sea.
4. "Consignee" means the person entitled to take delivery of the goods.
5. "Goods" includes live animals; where the goods are consolidated in a container, pallet or similar article of transport or where they are packed, "goods" includes such article of transport or packaging if supplied by the shipper. .... more..

YORK ANTWERP RULES 1994

RULE OF INTERPRETATION
In the adjustment of general average the following Rules shall apply to the exclusion of any Law and Practice inconsistent therewith.
Except as provided by the Rule Paramount and the numbered Rules, general average shall be adjusted according to the lettered Rules.
RULE PARAMOUNT
In no case shall there be any allowance for sacrifice or expenditure unless reasonably made or incurred.

RULE A
There is a general average act when, and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure.
General average sacrifices and expenditures shall be borne by the different contributing interests on the basis hereinafter provided.
RULE B
There is a common maritime adventure when one or more vessels are towing or pushing another vessel or vessels, provided that they are all involved in commercial activities and not in a salvage operation.
When measures are taken to preserve the vessels and their cargoes, if any, from a common peril, these Rules shall apply.
A vessel is not in common peril with another vessel or vessels if by simply disconnecting from the other vessel or vessels she is in safety; but if the disconnection is itself a general average act the common maritime adventure continues. .... more..